An overview of different disciplines on physical activity, exercise, physical education, sports participation rates and on upgrading health: The case of Turkey

The lack and deprivation of physical activity has begun to be a serious problem in Turkey and continues to be a problem as in many parts of the world. However, human is a moving entity; and as long as s/he moves regularly, s/he remains healthy and maintains good health. However, some people are aware and reluctant, while some people are unaware that they prefer a sedentary life, and many of them have unhealthy nutrition habits. As a result of these, an unhealthy lifestyle appears. Many people, institutions and organizations are working to solve these problems; however, they are not adequate. When this is the case, the number of studies conducted in this field and relevant applications needs to be increased; and positive results must be realized in real life. The purpose of this symposium is the presentation and discussion of different viewpoints on the solution to the problem. For this purpose, Turkish Sport Sciences Association, Turkish Sport Medicine Association, Turkish Physiotherapy Association, and Association of Sport for all and Wellness representatives will make presentations in accordance with their areas of expertise. The common point of the presentations is to raise the quality of life and health with the contribution of qualified physical education, sports, exercise, physical activity and the viewpoints of different disciplines.



Board of Directors, GCH 
Board Members of Turkish Sports Sciences Association
Former Dean, Faculty of Sports Sciences 
Hacettepe University 
Ankara/ TURKEY 

Prof. Dr. Gıyasettin Demirhan is working at Hacettepe University Faculty of Sport Sciences. He is Dean of the Faculty and Head of Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department. Also, he is a former president of Turkish Sport Sciences Association. He is a member of some international scientific association like AIESEP, FIEP, ECSS, ISHPES. Currintly his research interests are critical thinking, instructional technology in PE, relationship between physical activity and academic performance and cognitive process, risk perception in outdoor-adventure sports. He published 23 articles in international refereed journals and 44 articles in national referred journals. Also, he has two books and 11 book chapters in physical education and sport pedagogy. He presented more than 100 papers in international and national scientific congresses and completed 12 international and national scientific projects in his own research field. He was as keynote and invited speaker at many national and international scientific meetings. Also, he organized many international and national scientific meetings. He has 128 citations in scientific journals which are indexed in SSCI and SCI and 365 citations in Google Scholar. His WoS “h” index is 12.



Prof. Dr. Bülent ÜLKAR
President of Turkish Sports Medicine Association Executive Board. 
Ankara University Faculty of Medicine 
Department of Sports Medicine 

Prof. Dr. Bülent Ülkar is a sports medicine specialist and is currently working as a fulltime professor at Ankara University School of Medicine, Sports Medicine Department. His main areas of interest are sports traumatology and rehabilitation, injury prevention and pre-participation examinations, promotion of physical activity for preventive medicine. Dr. Ülkar was a member of FIMS (International Federation of Sports Medicine) Education Commission between 2006-2014. He is a member of EFSMA (European Federation of Sports Medicine Associations) Scientific and Education Commission since 2014 and a member of Turkish Sports Medicine Association since 1993 and served as a member of scientific and education commissions, and as an executive board member between 2006 and 2008. Currently, he is a member of Turkish Olympic Committee Medical Commission and President of Turkish Sports Medicine Association Executive Board. Dr. Ülkar has published many scientific articles, chapters in books and scientific presentations in national and international meetings. He is the Editor-in Chief of Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine.

The Urgency of Physical Activity Promotion to Struggle Against the Explosion of Hypokinetic Diseases and Sedentary Death Syndrome

After the Industrial Revolution, the development of new technologies at a dizzying pace has resulted in a lot of work being handed over to machines by people. Technology, which has also entered into the daily life of human beings, has caused great changes in daily life activities. While some of these directly reduce physical activity (such as motorized vehicles), others indirectly promote immobility (such as television, computers, the internet). Unfortunately, human organism cannot respond at the same pace to this fast-changing technology. The skeletal, muscular, metabolic and cardiovascular systems are adversely affected by the physical inactivity. Physical inactivity eventually led to an explosion of "noncommunicable diseases". According to the World Health Organization; Insufficient physical activity is one of the leading risk factors for death worldwide. It is a key risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. Physical activity has significant health benefits and contributes to prevent NCDs. More than 80% of the world's adolescent population is insufficiently physically active. So, we urgently need to define and plan an effective strategy to eradicate Physical Inactivity Disease to save the people and eventually to save the World.



Prof. Dr. Erdal ZORBA
President of the Association of Sport For All & Wellness.
President of the Balkan Sport For All Federation.
Faculty of Sports Science Department of Recreation
Gazi University  

Prof. Dr. Erdal ZORBA, founder of the first department of recreation in Turkey and concept of "Welness" is the first driver, He was the director of the School of Physical Education and Sports at Muğla University between the years of 1996 and 2016, and also at Gazi University in 2017. In addition that he was the founding Dean of Gazi University, Faculty of Sports Sciences. In the field of physical education and sports are available more than 250 articles, papers and projects. There are books on body composition and measurement methods, sport and physical fitness for all, lifelong sport, physical activity and physical fitness, and life for all for sports. He has also been chairman of many prestigious congresses in the field of sports sciences. Dr. Erdal ZORBA was the president of the Turkish Sport For All Federation between the years of 2008-2016 and he is still president of the Balkan Sport For All Federation, Association of Sport For All & Wellness and also honorary member of the International Sport For All Federation.

Interdisciplinary Dimension of Sport Culture and Its Contribution to Quality of Life

Sport is an element that provides social solidarity and integration and allows people to better understand each other and different cultures. Everyone shares an equal attitude in the universal values of sport with an approach that ignores features such as race, nationality, religion, sect, social position, education, culture and economic differences that divide people into groups in societies. Sport culture, on the other hand, is a universal heritage that expresses all kinds of values, products and behavior related to the sport. For this reason, the interdisciplinary dimension of sports cultures is increasingly important. Sports equipment, internet, virtual sports, etc., cause people to change their point of view on sport and reach different dimensions in sports sector. Now, with its industrial size, "Sports, Recreation and Wellness for All" has become the most important concepts of the health and sports field of the last 100 years. Because one of the most important parameters of quality of life is health. As a result of the studies carried out with different view points revealed that the quality of life concept will be formulated as the product of the health and effort factors. Shin and Johnson (1978) describe the quality of life as follows; "To carry out individual requests, to participate in activities, to benefit from personal development opportunities, to have sufficient resources in terms of qualifications, and to find these resources as social comparatives". Defining the healthy life of the World Health Organization, not being unhealthy longevity, but aimed to be long-lived with healthy aging. Parallel to this, new developments in medicine, developments in technology and ergogenic supports are important for sports and human health. On the other hand, the increase of the materials played with genes is also a great danger for humanity. For this reason, the interdisciplinary dimension of sports is the quality of life how to make it positive and in this regard it is necessary to discuss how cooperation between individuals and institutions.



Prof. Dr. Mitat KOZ 
General Secretary of Turkish Sports Sciences Association
Dean, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Ankara University
Phone: 0090-5419490001

Prof. Dr. Mitat KOZ is working at Ankara University Faculty of Sport Sciences. He is Dean of the Faculty. Also, he is a Executive Board Member of Turkish Sport Sciences Association. He is member of ECSS, Turkish Physiotherapy Association, Turkish Sport Physiotherapy Association, Turkish Physiological Sciences Association. He is also editorial board member of Tübitak Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences and Ortadogu Medical Sciences Journal. He is a sub-committee member of many national federations such as Wrestling Federation, Tennis Federation, and University Sports Federation. His research interests are injury prevention in sports, physiological adaptations to training, assessment of physical fitness, health benefits of physical activity. He published 28 articles in international refereed journals and 29 articles in national referred journals. He has one book in physiology. He presented more than 60 papers in international and national scientific congresses. He was as invited speaker at many national and international scientific meetings. He has 184 citations in scientific journals which are indexed in SSCI and SCI and 472 citations in Google Scholar. His WoS “h” index is 8.

New Direction of Physical Education, Sport and Health in Turkey: Importance and Necessity of Multidisciplinary Approaches

By revealing the relation between physical activity and health, it was emphasized the importance of physical education in order to bring healthy life style behaviors to the people in school age. The presence of scientific findings that the substructure of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome occurs in childhood, have further increased the importance of physical education. These diseases have become an epidemic in developed countries. It has been accepted that physical education providing an excellent opportunity to learn and practice skills to enhance health and fitness during childhood and youth at school. In accordance with this, necessary regulations have been made in the curricula of physical education courses in many countries, mainly European and North America. The Ministry of Education of the Turkish have currently updated the objective of the physical education and sports teaching program in 2017. In the related study for the 9-12 th grades, the phrase that “physical education and sports are accepted as a field of activity that gives health and fitness to the growing generation” was included. With the cooperation of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, the concept of "school report of health related physical fitness" has been developed for physical education and sports teachers. It is necessary to change the perspective of students, teachers, parents and administrators towards physical education courses. It has been shown that participation physical and sport activities in school does not adversely affect the academic achievement of the students, but rather has a positive effect on the academic development of the students by improving their health. It should be explained to all stakeholders that physical education courses are not as compensatory hours for other courses and activities, but at least as important as mathematics, literature and other science lessons.

Prof. Dr. Volga Bayrakcı Tunay
Vice President of Turkish Sports Physiotherapists Association
Hacettepe University
Faculty of Health Sciences
Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation
Phone: +903123051576-134

Prof. Dr. Volga Bayrakcı Tunay is a sports physiotherapist and currently working as a fulltime professor at Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. She is the Head of Sports Rehabilitation Unit. She is also vice president of Turkish Sports Physiotherapists Association. Dr. Tunay received her Bachelors degree in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation in 1993, Masters degree in 1997, and Ph.D. degree in 2001 from Hacettepe University. Her main areas of interest are sports physiotherapy and rehabilitation, injury prevention, functional tests for return to sport and promotion of physical activity. Dr. Tunay is a member of Turkish Physiotherapy Association, Turkish Sport Physiotherapy Association, IFSPT (International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy). She is also in Education Commission of Health Sciences Educational Programs Evaluation and Accreditation Association. Dr. Tunay has published many scientific articles, chapters in books and scientific presentations in national and international meetings. She is the editor of the book “Rehabilitation in Lower Extremity Injuries” and “Journal of Exercise Therapy and Rehabilitation”. She is married and has a son.

The importance of sports physiotherapy and the promotion of physical activity: Why we should exercise and why we don't?

Sports physiotherapy is a growing specialisation in countries that strive to promote an active lifestyle and athletic excellence. Sports physiotherapy is now recognised as a specialism in many countries. A sports physiotherapist is a recognised professional who demonstrates advanced competencies in the promotion of safe physical activity participation, provision of advice, and adaptation of rehabilitation and training interventions, for the purposes of preventing injury, restoring optimal function, and contributing to the enhancement of standard of professional and ethical practice according to the “IFSPT (International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy) Sports Physiotherapy Competencies and Standards” It is important to note that the sports physiotherapist operates within a multidisciplinary team. It is well known that an active lifestyle can protect against a variety of health risks, such as heart disease, diabetes, depression and cancer. Regular participation in physical activity also results in positive effects on psychological wellbeing. However many people are not regularly active. Everyone knows that exercise is good for health. What people may not know is just how good or exactly what qualifies as exercise. Hippocrates wrote about the dangers of inactivity between 460BC-370BC. Pythagoras (M.Ö. 570-490-Samos) was the founder of the first school of teaching exercise. Tai chi, originated in China, dates from the 12th century B.C. Yoga's roots in India go back much further. In this day and age, many people don't want to be physically active in some reasons. Despite they know the benefits of the exercise, why people don’t want to do exercise and why we have to encourage activity and fitness?